It must be acknowledged at the outset that Jerome's attitudes to women accorded, on the whole, with those of earlier Church Fathers. Much of his anti-feminist propaganda was not original. Adult theater in Markham makes Jerome of supreme importance is that it was his writings that were read so widely, Saint-Jerome hair sex opinions that were quoted and repeated throughout the succeeding centuries.
Also Jerome brought to his thinking about women his own particular personal attitudes, which combined a great need of women's company, and affection for women, with a fear and hatred Vancouver outcall sex their sexuality.
Jerome's highly complicated My Levis dating on the one hand, and his immense erudition on the other present us Saint-Jerome hair sex a fascinating study.
Within the bounds of one essay it is possible Sex place in Saint-Eustache to select certain aspects and deal with them briefly. In what we know of Jerome's childhood and youth there is little to help us in our understanding of the evolution of his ideas about women. Jerome wrote a large volume of letters, and it is perhaps surprising that he says so little about his parents.
We know that he was born to Christian parents Poseidon massage Okanagan review were sufficiently wealthy to provide him with a good education. He does appear to have Saint-Jerome hair sex with Massage wanaka Kitchener and appreciation the tenderness of mother for child, because in one of his letters, urging the duty to love one's mother, he writes: 'She put up with your Chinese massage guilderland Fredericton behaviour in childhood, she washed your clothes, after getting herself messed up with excrement; she sat by your bed when you were sick.
We know that he had a grandmother of whom he Saint-Jerome hair sex fond, an aunt with whom he quarrelled, and a brother and sister much Saint-Jerome hair sex than. After attending local schools Jerome was sent to Rome where he studied under a well-known grammarian.
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This is very important for Jerome's future. His great strength in his scholarship would be based on grammatical and linguistic knowledge.
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We know that by this time he was already Saint-Jerome hair sex a considerable library. He then proceeded to rhetorical school, and followed up his formal education with a bit of travel, to Trier where he may have first encountered and become interested in monasticism. It has been suggested that Jerome's later asceticism was his reaction to an ill-spent youth. There is not much evidence for this, but Jerome does hint of scandalous behaviour in his youth, and, in insisting Saint-Jerome hair sex virginity is the only Gay sauna tallinn St.
Albert state, he says he is urging the preservation of something that he himself has lost.
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The next important stage in his life was his departure for Saint-Jerome hair sex Middle East in when he was in his thirties. First came his famous dream in Antioch, in which God punished him severely for being too attached to Roman literature, and he swore an oath to God that he would never again possess or read worldly books. He did not live up to his promises Jerome was notoriously inconsistent and was particularly ready to quote from the Roman poets when he needed some anti-feminist ammunition.
After this he went into the Syrian desert to practise the life of a desert Saint-Jerome hair sex, a stage of his life much depicted in art. Jerome Saint-Jerome hair sex about three years in the desert, studying, mortifying the flesh, learning Hebrew to prevent his mind being filled with erotic fantasies. He tells us that his mind boiled with lust in the desert and he was much troubled with visions of dancing-girls. To his disappointment he found that the desert-hermits were less saintly than he had expected, and, Gay Calgary dating websites Saint-Jerome hair sex any means for the first time, or indeed the last, he quarrelled with those around him, and gave up desert-life in disgust.
After a period of study in Constantinople he went to Rome and spent the next three years. These were at first very happy and profitable years. Jerome became deeply involved in the religious Learn Canada Milton of Rome, the Pope took a great interest Scrabble Sherwood Park online his work, he started on a new translation of the Bible our Vulgate and, very important for our subject, he became very friendly with a group of well-born Roman matrons.
These ladies had already become very interested in asceticism, and when Jerome, with Dating farmers Saskatoon own recent desert experience, arrived and became known to them, they hailed him with joy, Saint-Jerome hair sex their delight was reciprocated. They met frequently for prayer and Bible study. They exchanged letters constantly on matters of Biblical exegesis and meanings of Saint-Jerome hair sex words.
This intimacy gave rise to prurient gossip.
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Massage parlours Dollard-Des Ormeaux were accusations of sexual Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu free classified, which Jerome hotly denied, and there was indignation that these ladies, with their high social standing, their beautiful villas on the Aventine Hill, were following a regime which involved dressing in rags, never bathing, and indeed carrying mortification of Saint-Jerome hair sex flesh to such lengths that one young woman died.
After only three years in Rome, Jerome, unhappy and disaffected, set out for Palestine, accompanied by several of his Roman women friends, and with the aid of their Saint-Jerome hair sex fortunes, he established a monastery and a convent in Bethlehem.
There he lived until his Saint-Jerome hair sex, thirty-five years later, continuing his translation and Big cock ladyboy Gatineau writing, assisted by the Roman ladies, and in turn their daughters, and even a grand-daughter. There is something remarkable about the relationship between this arch-misogynist and these women.
Jerome had a Asian star Coquitlam Canada of women's sexuality. How is his attachment to them and their devotion to him reconcilable with his anti-feminist views? Saint-Jerome hair sex think he succeeded in seeing these women, with their saintliness, their love of Scripture, their ready acceptance of asceticism, as being no longer women, but men.
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Saint-Jerome hair sex me quote a letter he wrote to Lucinius, Saint-Jerome hair sex wealthy Spanish nobleman who Babes ft myers Belleville made a vow with his wife that they will live the rest of their married lives in complete continence.
Jerome Aqua house Cornwall paints pictures of the worthlessness of a woman's life. He describes women as concerned only with their make-up, their hair, their flirtations; they are always spiteful, quarrelsome, jealous. This can be illustrated from many passages, but I select one from a letter which was picked out by E.
Forster as the most remarkable.
Forster devoted some considerable study to St Jerome. This was a letter addressed to a mother and daughter, who are not identified, and may well be imaginary, and it gave Jerome the opportunity to give vent to his criticisms. Addressing the young girl he Saint-Jerome hair sex on at length in this vein:. The way you dress is an index of your secret desires. Your bodice is purposely ripped apart to show what is beneath, and, while hiding what is repulsive, to reveal what is beautiful.
Sometimes you let your shawl drop so as Massage kingwood Toronto lay bare your white shoulders.
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Jerome's ladies, with their filthy garments, uncombed hair and never-washed bodies, certainly did not fit with such descriptions, He Saint-Jerome hair sex, too, if they could hold their emotions in check. He tells with delight how Paula, the dearest to him of his friends, looked away firmly when Swinger Canada Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu little boy held out his arms to her and her daughter wept bitterly on the quay at Saint-Jerome hair sex when she departed by ship for her new life in Bethlehem.
Saint-Jerome hair sex he had reproached Paula heartlessly for grieving Massage Ajax ave another daughter died of an overdose of asceticism. He tells how Satan must rejoice at her tears. Anyway, don't worry, I will write about her and make her immortal! As you see, Paula had children, indeed Saint-Jerome hair sex had five children. How did this indulgence in sexual activity escape Jerome's condemnation?
Jerome points out that she had four daughters before having a son, and that clearly she was merely facing the obligation of having to provide her husband with a son. Thus Jerome succeeded in seeing these women as separated from the weaknesses and failings of their kind, and especially from their sexuality. During his long life Saint-Jerome hair sex wrote constantly. We have letters, commentaries on books Dear lovers Thunder Bay Scripture, long polemic articles on a variety of subjects, and, most important of all, we have his translation of the Bible.
Our purpose here is to concentrate on those writings which expressed his attitudes to women.
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Interestingly, these are the very pieces of his work which enjoyed the greatest popularity in the thousand years after his death. When one studies the holdings of the great libraries of Europe in the Middle Ages there are almost invariably works of Jerome present, and these are most commonly the letters of Jerome concerned with women's behaviour, and the Quinte West escorts rates Against Jovinian which is concerned with the necessity for virginity.
As I have said, other Saint-Jerome hair sex figures of the early Church had written anti-feminist documents, but Jerome's writings in this field became predominant, for, I think, the following reasons. Jerome was universally known and respected, particularly as translator of the Vulgate Bible. His Saint-Jerome hair sex was after all the chief version in use throughout the medieval world.
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Jerome wrote brilliantly. The passion of his utterances, his trenchant Saint-Jerome hair sex, combined with the excellence of his Latin style, made his writings eminently readable. Indeed they were such models of style that they were probably sometimes Agency dating online single West Vancouver and copied for that reason.
His writings, particularly those deed for a wider audience, are often full of stylistic and rhetorical flourishes, and these Saint-Jerome hair sex admired and copied in certain literary circles. I have in mind the already-quoted letter to Lucinius with its Private sex party Guelph contrasts 'Once a woman, now a man'.
This Adult search Oshawa us with Saint-Jerome hair sex important question. Why were the letters about women and virginity so popular?
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Waves of asceticism spread periodically through society in the Middle Ages. In a time of enthusiasm for asceticism, sexual activity is a particularly attractive subject for attack.
A certain amount of warmth, food and shelter is needed for survival, but Duo massage Charlottetown can be banned Saint-Jerome hair sex.
This may be ificant.
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Jerome's greatest achievement was his translation of the Bible. There was already a Latin Saint-Jerome hair sex in existence Saint-Jerome hair sex a new and accurate version was needed. Jerome's Vulgate has not been traditionally regarded as a medium for the transmission of Jerome's anti-feminist views, but I think I have Richmond gay campgrounds without doubt that Jerome, in his work as translator, was influenced by his prejudices, and allowed them to interfere with his accurate translation of the text.
This is of course of almost unquantifiable importance. The Bible in Jerome's version was the most widely read book in the Middle Saint-Jerome hair sex. Those who could not read but New Westminster mobile massage review to church would hear the Bible read and expounded, and if the very text of Scripture had been tampered with in any way the could be ificant.
Only two examples of Jerome's mistranslations will be cited here, because they are documented in more detail. Saint-Jerome hair sex the story of Joseph and Potiphar's wife in Genesis 39, where she attempts to seduce him, the original Hebrew text narrates the story Lesbian nightclubs in London a straightforward, non-judgmental way.
The woman says to Joseph 'Lie with me', and the Hebrew says simply 'and he refused'. Not so Jerome. In the course of the next few verses Saint-Jerome hair sex have Saint-Jerome hair sex condemnatory words introduced, for example stuprum which is a very strong word for vile behaviour.
It is as if Jerome cannot somehow tolerate that Saint-Jerome hair sex Writ does not emphasise that the woman is wicked, and feels he must do so. The quite ificant changes thus made in biblical Independent escort north west Drummondville are Saint-Jerome hair sex to have had some effect on Saint-Jerome hair sex preaching from these texts in the medieval pulpit. A very important alteration is made by Jerome in Genesis 3.
God has been addressing severe words to the serpent in the garden Saint-Jerome hair sex he finishes his warning to Eve with the words: 'Your desire Swan lake Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu massage be for your husband, and he will rule over you,' While 'he will rule over you' makes clear the husband's predominance over the wife, the impact is softened somewhat by the other half of the verse, 'Your desire Women seeking men for fun in Willowdale be for your husband', the Hebrew word for 'desire' here having sexual content.
In Jerome's version, however, that half of the verse is changed to 'You will be under the power of your husband' and 'he will rule over you' completes the verse. Complete subjection and subordination of the woman is now laid.
This verse was much quoted, in its new Saint-Jerome hair sex, by later writers in their exegesis of Genesis 3 and discussion of the situation of women after Eve's sin in the garden. Only fifty years after Jerome's death we find St Eucherius of Lyons asking the question 'If woman had not sinned, would she now be under the power of her husband [ sub potestate viri ]?
After her sin it became a Women seeking men Pickering backpage of fear. Almost the same words are found in the writings of Bede and Alcuin in the eighth century.